Hazelnut-Legislative Provisions and Policies

Hazelnut issue has been discussed seriously and various studies have been made on this issue during the early term of Republic of Turkey.

In 1925, Rize was included among the provinces growing hazelnut. With the law numbered 552 enacted in the same year, the Aşar tax was abolished and 8% tax was replaced instead of it. With the Government Decree No. 6207 issued in 1927, the export of hazelnut seedlings was prohibited. In 1935, the 1st National Hazelnut Congress was held under the chairmanship of Economy Minister Celal Bayar. In this congress, especially quality and standardization issues, from hazelnut cultivation to sale, were discussed and presented to the congress in various reports. Hazelnut Regulation has been put into force.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/421597

Hazelnut Agriculture Sales Cooperatives Association (FİSKOBİRLİK) was established in Giresun in 1938. FİSKOBİRLİK, whose headquarters is located in Giresun, continues its activities today. FİSKOBİRLİK is the biggest supporter of the hazelnut producer, as the buyer and evaluator of the product.

https://www.fiskobirlik.com.tr/index.html

The organization of the National Hazelnut Congresses continues at certain time intervals. The 2nd National Hazelnut Congress in 1957 and the 3rd National Hazelnut Congress in 2004 were held in Giresun (2). “Hazelnut Workshops” were organized in Trabzon in 2013 and Ordu in 2019 by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (abolished).

A “Hazelnut Station” was established in Giresun in 1936 under the Ministry of Agriculture. The aim of the organization is to inform producers by researching modern production techniques, methods of combating diseases and pests in hazelnut farming, thus increasing yield and quality of hazelnuts and ensuring sustainability. The organization continues its activities under the name of “Hazelnut Research Institute Directorate” [1]

https://www.tarimorman.gov.tr/Sayfalar/AnaSayfa.aspx

Hazelnut Promotion Group (HPG) was founded in 1996 by the hazelnut exporters and the Undersecretariat of Foreign Trade.

http://www.ftg.org.tr/tr/default.asp

HPG continued hazelnut promotion activities until 2017 in order to increase hazelnut consumption in the domestic and foreign markets. HPG’s activities were terminated in March 2017 due to the aim of establishing a structure that covers the entire sector instead of sectoral promotion groups. “Turkey Promotion Group” was established with “Regulations on Advertising Turkey Establishment and Duties of the Group” released on August 12, 2017 by the Ministry of Economy to undertake promotional activities in all sectors.

http://turkiyetanitimgrubu.org/tr/index

“Law on Planning of Hazelnut Production and Determination of Planting Areas” was enacted on 16.06.1983, which envisaged planning of hazelnut production and limitation of planting areas. The law stipulates that “the determination and announcement of new hazelnut planting areas and the principles of allowing new hazelnut garden facilities or renewal” will be regulated by the regulation to be published.

https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.2844.pdf

The “Regulation on the Procedures and Principles Regarding the Planning of Hazelnut Production and Determination of Planting Areas” published in accordance with this Law entered into force with the Decision of the Council of Ministers dated 06.07.1989 and numbered 89/14313.

https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20220.pdf

The areas where hazelnut production is allowed were determined by the Cabinet Decision No. 93/3985 dated 07.01.1993.

https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21485.pdf

In the Decision of the Council of Ministers numbered 94/6519 dated 23.12.1994, matters related to compensation to be paid against hazelnut removal are regulated.

https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22213.pdf

As a result of negotiations with the World Bank in order to support the structural adjustment works initiated in the agricultural sector, the Agricultural Reform Implementation Project Loan Agreement was signed on 12.07.2001. Support for the producers who will production of alternative crops by giving up hazelnut production was also included in the scope of the project. Afterwards, previous Council of Ministers’ Decisions on the issue were abolished with a series of Council of Ministers ‘resolutions. Alternative Product Program was implemented in the hazelnut fields in the first, second and third grade less than 6% slope agricultural lands in some provinces determined by the Council of Ministers’ decision dated 22.11.2001 and numbered 2001/3267 published in accordance with the Loan Agreement.

http://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/458181468313247541/pdf/Conformed-Copy-L4631-Agricultural-Reform-Implementation-Project-Loan-Loan-Agreement.pdf

Since 2009, a new strategy has been implemented to ensure sustainability in hazelnut production, to increase the profitability of hazelnut producers, to ensure free market conditions according to the supply and demand balance of hazelnut prices, and to protect producers against the decrease in hazelnut prices in Turkey.

https://www.dunya.com/ekonomi/yeni-findik-stratejisi-yururluge-girdi-haberi-83677

Within the scope of this Hazelnut Strategy; between 2009 and 2011, producers producing in licensed areas were given area-based income support, and producers who switched to alternative crops by removing hazelnut gardens in unlicensed areas were given compensatory payment support. These supports continued between 2012 and 2014. [2]

Since 2015, only area-based income supports have been paid repeatly every year. Finally, the supports of 2019 were paid to hazelnut producers on 20 March 2020. 2019 area based income support amount was 170 TL/da.  The same year, diesel support was 17 TL/da and fertilizer support was 4 TL/da.[3]

As part of the Hazelnut Strategy announced in 2009, hazelnut planting areas were redefined with the Decision of the Council of Ministers numbered 2009/15531 https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2009/10/20091027-1.htm amending the Decree 2001/3267.

It has been ruled that the hazelnut gardens will not be allowed to be established and renewed in provinces/districts execpt provinces determined by the decision of the Council of Ministers, and in the 1st and 2nd class agricultural lands and 3rd class agricultural lands with less than 6% slope in provinces/districts determined by the decision of Council of Ministers.

The restriction for areas at altitude 750 m. was removed with the Decree No. 2001/3267. 

Finally, with the Decision of the Council of Ministers numbered 2014/7253 published in the Official Gazette on 07.02.2015, hazelnut production was allowed in 16 provinces and 123 districts.

https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2015/02/20150207-6-1.pdf

Thanks to Aysun Akar, Director of Hazelnut Research Instıtute for her contribution- https://arastirma.tarimorman.gov.tr/findik


[1] https://arastirma.tarimorman.gov.tr/findik/Menu/8/Tanitim

[2] Türk Agriculture and Forest Journal, July-August,2018

[3] https://www.tarimorman.gov.tr

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